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Pasadena, California – October 8, 2008:
Astronomers at the
California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
and their colleagues have provided unique insight
into the nature of a young star-forming galaxy
as it appeared only two billion years after the
Big Bang and determined how the galaxy may eventually
evolve to become a system like our own Milky Way.
The team made their observations by coupling two techniques,
gravitational lensing –
which makes use of an effect
first predicted by Albert Einstein
in which the gravitational field of massive objects,
such as foreground galaxies,
bends light rays from objects located a distance behind,
thus magnifying the appearance of distant sources –
and laser-assisted guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO)
The researchers found that the distant galaxy,
which is typical in many respects to others at that epoch,
shows clear signs of orderly rotation.
The finding, in association with observations
conducted at millimeter wavelengths,
which are sensitive to cold molecular gas
(an indicator of galactic rotation),
suggests that the source is in the early stages
of assembling a spiral disk with a central nucleus
similar to those seen in spiral galaxies at the present day.
Using the Hubble Space Telescope, the team located a distinctive galaxy dubbed the "Cosmic Eye" because its form is distorted into a ring-shaped structure by the gravitational field of a foreground galaxy.
© Stark, Ellis, Caltech Digital Media Center
"Gravity has effectively provided us with an additional zoom lens,
enabling us to study this distant galaxy on scales
approaching only a few hundred light-years.
This is 10 times finer sampling than hitherto possible,"
explains postdoctoral research scholar Dan Stark of
the leader of the study.
"As a result, we can see, for the first time, that a
typical-sized young galaxy is spinning and slowly evolving
into a spiral galaxy much like our own Milky Way," he says.
The research, described in the October 9 issue of the journal Nature, provides a demonstration of the likely power of the future Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the first of a new generation of large telescopes designed to exploit AO.
When completed in the latter half of the next decade, TMT's large aperture and improved optics will produce images with an angular resolution three times better than the 10-meter Keck and 12 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope, at similar wavelengths. Because of the significant improvement in angular resolution provided by AO, the TMT will be able to study the internal properties of small distant galaxies, seen as they were when the universe was young.
Likewise, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), a large interferometer being completed in Chile, will provide a major step forward in mapping the extremely faint emission from cold hydrogen gas – the principal component of young, distant galaxies and a clear marker of cold molecular gas – compared to the coarser capabilities of present facilities. In their recent research, the Caltech-led team has provided a glimpse of what can be done with the superior performance expected of TMT and ALMA.
The key spectroscopic observations were made with the OSIRIS instrument, developed specifically for the Keck AO system by astrophysicist James Larkin and collaborators at the University of California, Los Angeles. Stark and his coworkers used the OSIRIS instrument to map the velocity across the source in fine detail, allowing them to demonstrate that it has a primitive rotating disk.
To aid in their analysis, the researchers combined data from the Keck Observatory with data taken at millimeter wavelengths by the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), located in the French Alps. This PdBI instrument is sensitive to the distribution of cold gas that has yet to collapse to form stars. These observations give a hint of what will soon be routine with the ALMA interferometer.
"Remarkably, the cold gas traced by our millimeter observations shares the rotation shown by the young stars seen in the Keck observations. The distribution of gas seen with our amazing resolution indicates we are witnessing the gradual buildup of a spiral disk with a central nuclear component," explains coinvestigator Mark Swinbank of Durham University, who was involved in both the Keck and PdBI observations.
This work demonstrates how important angular resolution has become in ensuring progress in extragalactic astronomy. his will be the key gain of both the TMT and ALMA facilities.
"For decades, astronomers were content to build bigger telescopes, arguing that light-gathering power was the primary measure of a telescope's ability," explains Richard S. Ellis, Steele Family Professor of Astronomy at Caltech, a coauthor on the Nature study, and a member of the TMT board of directors. "However, adaptive optics and interferometry are now providing ground-based astronomers with the additional gain of angular resolution. The combination of a large aperture and exquisite resolution is very effective for studying the internal properties of distant and faint sources seen as they were when the universe was young. This is the exciting future we can expect with TMT and ALMA, and, thanks to the magnification of a gravitational lens, we have an early demonstration here in this study," he says.
D.P. Stark, A.M. Swinbank, R.S. Ellis, S. Dye, I.R. Smail and J. Richard,
"The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at redshift z≅3," Nature 455, 775–777 (2008)
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